We have identified meaningful and statistically significant correlations between leadership styles, aspects of toxic leadership, and spiritual practice.
In our sample, there exist two pathways from spirituality to leadership practices:
Prayer fulfillment (aka meditation) is a vital precursor of transformational leadership. In this context, transformational leadership dwarfs psychopathy and machiavellistic tendencies.
On the other hand, transactional leadership is driven by Machiavellianism and a sense of shared responsibility.
At first glance, this result sounds paradoxical. It could be that universal spirituality is essential in corraling and constraining the negative aspects of manipulative behavior and cunningness!
See enclosed the results of our current empirical study on how spirituality can help to corral Dark Triad-aspects of Personality at Work!